What are cryptocurrencies?

26 June 2023

What is cryptocurrency and how it is used

Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that use cryptography to secure and verify transactions. Each cryptocurrency has its own set of rules and protocols governing its functioning. 

Cryptocurrencies are usually bought and sold on cryptocurrency exchanges and their value is determined by market supply and demand. Because they are decentralized and not tied to any government or financial institution, they are often seen as a way to promote financial freedom and privacy, as well as a potential safeguard against inflation.

Cryptocurrencies also have the potential to be used to develop decentralized applications (dApps), smart contracts and Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs). These technologies are expanding horizons in many areas, including financial services, gaming, digital art, and other areas.

Cryptocurrencies allow users to earn interest in the world of decentralized finance (DeFi), take out loans and perform other financial transactions without having to turn to traditional financial institutions.

How cryptocurrency works: key features

Cryptocurrencies are decentralized, meaning that they are not controlled by any authority, such as the government or a financial institution. Instead, they operate on a network where transactions are verified by a decentralized group of users.

Cryptocurrencies are based on blockchain technology, a distributed ledger system that records transactions on a public network. Each blockchain contains a set of transactions that are verified and added to the network.

What is cryptocurrency and how it is used

Cryptocurrencies are created through the process of mining, where network members solve complex mathematical problems to verify transactions and add new blocks to the chain. Miners receive new cryptocurrency blocks as a reward for their work.

Let's decipher some of the terms and processes you will encounter when working with the cryptocurrency market:

  1. Decentralization means that there is no central authority or institution that controls cryptocurrency. Instead, control is distributed to all members of the network who verify and record transactions.
  2. Cryptography - used to secure transactions and control the creation of new coins. Most cryptocurrencies use a technology called public-key cryptography. It can provide the ability to make secure transactions without having to disclose personal information.
  3. Mining (or mining) in the context of cryptocurrencies is the process of verifying and adding new transactions to the blockchain, which is a distributed register of all transactions in the cryptocurrency network. Mining is performed using special devices such as mining farms or ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit) miners, which are designed to solve complex mathematical problems. These tasks require computing power, and when the miner solves the problem, it adds a new block with validated transactions to the blockchain and is rewarded for its work in the form of new cryptocurrencies.
  4. Cryptocurrencies can provide anonymity because some transactions do not require personal information. But it is worth bearing in mind that many cryptocurrencies are actually pseudo-anonymous, in which case transactions can be tracked and analyzed.
  5. Limited supply - for example, the maximum number of bitcoins created is 21 million. This differs from fiat currencies, which central banks can issue indefinitely.
  6. Cryptocurrencies have high volatility. This means that their prices can fluctuate dramatically in a short period of time. At the same time, this makes them a highly profitable but also risky investment asset.
  7. Some cryptocurrencies, including Ethereum, support smart contracts. Smart contracts are programs or codes that run on a blockchain and automatically execute contract terms when certain events occur. They are a key feature of some cryptocurrencies, such as Ethereum. Smart contracts allow parties to transact and execute contracts without the mediation of a third party, such as a legal or financial institution. The smart contract code defines the terms of the contract, and once those terms are met, the contract is automatically executed without the possibility of intervention or modification.

Most cryptocurrencies have a limited supply, which is determined by their software protocol. This makes them a scarce resource and can increase their investment value.

What is cryptocurrency and how it is used

Classification of cryptocurrencies: coins and tokens

Cryptocurrencies can be divided into two categories: coins and tokens. Although both coins and tokens are digital currencies, they have different characteristics and uses.

  • Coins are cryptocurrencies that operate independently of any other platform or any other protocol. Such coins are designed to function as a medium of exchange, a store of value, or a unit of currency. The most well-known example of a coin is Bitcoin, but there are many other coins that serve different purposes, such as Litecoin, Ethereum and Bitcoin Cash. Coins often have a limited supply, which is determined by their protocol and increases their attractiveness as an investment;
  • Tokens are cryptocurrencies that run on top of an existing platform or protocol. Such cryptocurrencies are created through a process called an initial coin offering (ICO), where developers create and sell tokens to raise funds for their projects.

Tokens can perform a variety of functions, such as providing access to a platform, tokenizing assets, or facilitating peer-to-peer transactions.

Types of cryptocurrencies

There are a huge number of different cryptocurrencies, each of which has its own unique characteristics and purpose. It is important to differentiate between them in order to choose the best option according to your investment goals and needs. Among the types of cryptocurrencies, several main categories can be distinguished.

  1. Bitcoin: This is the first and most famous cryptocurrency, created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009. Bitcoin uses blockchain technology to enable decentralized and anonymous financial transactions.
  2. Altcoins: This is the general name for all cryptocurrencies except Bitcoin. This includes Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple and many others. Each altcoin has its own characteristics and advantages.
  3. Stablecoins: These cryptocurrencies are pegged to the value of fiat currencies, such as the US dollar or euro, and serve as a stable means of exchange and storage of assets.
  4. Tokens: Tokens are created on the blockchain of other cryptocurrencies and have various purposes, including access to the platform, voting and funding projects.
  5. Privacy Coins: Cryptocurrencies such as Monero and Dash provide anonymous transactions and increased user privacy.

All these types of cryptocurrencies play an important role in the world of financial innovation and provide various opportunities for investors and users. When choosing cryptocurrencies, it is important to consider their features, technologies and potential risks in order to make informed decisions in this dynamic and rapidly developing sector.

Cryptocurrency: advantages and disadvantages

Cryptocurrency has attracted attention due to its advantages such as anonymity, security thanks to cryptography, and decentralization that eliminates intermediaries, thus reducing transfer fees. It gives access to financial services in regions with limited banking services and offers new investment opportunities.

Nevertheless, there are drawbacks. The volatility of cryptocurrencies can lead to significant investment losses. Anonymity, while an advantage, can facilitate illegal activity. In addition, mining cryptocurrencies requires significant energy consumption, which raises environmental concerns.

It is important to consider these factors when choosing cryptocurrency as a means of investment or payment. The right balance between innovation and regulation can help minimize risks and unlock the full potential of cryptocurrencies in the future.

Classification of cryptocurrencies: coins and tokens

Examples of cryptocurrencies


Bitcoin is based on blockchain technology and uses a consensus proof-of-work algorithm. Miners receive new coins as rewards for solving mathematical problems.
The number of bitcoins is limited to 21 million units. This makes it a scarce resource.
Despite its instability, bitcoin has gained wide acceptance and is now accepted by a growing number of individuals and companies around the world. 


Unlike Bitcoin, which is primarily a digital currency, Ethereum is a decentralized platform that allows the creation of smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps) based on blockchain. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that allow transactions to be automatically executed if certain conditions are met. This enables a wide range of applications, including decentralized financial platforms (DeFi), non-transactionable tokens (NFT), and more.

Examples of cryptocurrencies


One of the main differences between Litecoin and Bitcoin is transaction processing time. Litecoin uses a different mining algorithm called Scrypt, which speeds up block processing time and reduces transaction fees compared to Bitcoin. This makes Litecoin more efficient for everyday transactions.


Unlike Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that use a proof-of-work consensus algorithm, Ripple uses a consensus algorithm called the Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA). This speeds up transaction processing time and reduces transaction fees compared to other cryptocurrencies.

One of Ripple's main goals is to replace the obsolete but still very popular SWIFT payment system, which is used by banks and financial institutions around the world. Ripple allows for faster payments, which can significantly benefit businesses and individuals who need international remittance services.

How to buy cryptocurrency?

How to buy cryptocurrency?

The first step is to choose a reputable exchange to buy and sell cryptocurrency. Popular options include Binance, Coinbase, Kraken.

  1. You need to create an account with your personal information such as your name, address, and phone number. This is part of the KYC process: a procedure used by financial institutions and other organizations to verify the identity and identification of their customers. It aims to combat financial fraud, money laundering and terrorist financing.
  2. Data is used to verify the authenticity and validity of customer information. Verification may also require a scan of your passport with proof of address.
  3. Once your account is verified, you can fund it by depositing fiat currency such as dollars, euros or pounds sterling. Some exchanges also accept bitcoin or ether. 
  4. Now you can place a purchase order. After depositing your account, you can select the desired cryptocurrency you want to buy and make a purchase specifying the amount you want. Specify the price (market order) or use the current market price (limit order).
  5. After buying cryptocurrency you can store it on exchange or send it to your personal wallet. It is recommended to use secure wallet, which provides safe storage of your cryptocurrencies.

It is important to remember that buying cryptocurrency involves risks, so it is recommended to do your own research and evaluate your investment options before investing.

How to store cryptocurrency?

How to store cryptocurrency?

A personal wallet is software that stores your cryptocurrency on your computer or mobile device. 

Personal wallets come in several types:

  • Hot wallets are connected to the Internet, making them convenient for regular use;
  • cold wallets, on the other hand, are not connected to the Internet, which provides a higher level of security, but it is less convenient for frequent transfers. Popular cold wallet options are Exodus, MyEtherWallet, and Ledger Nano;
  • Hardware wallets are physical devices that store your cryptocurrency offline, making them the most secure storage option. Hardware wallets connect to your computer or mobile device via USB and require a password to access your digital assets. Popular hardware wallet options include Ledger, Trezor, and KeepKey;
  • Exchange wallets are default wallets provided by cryptocurrency exchanges when you buy or sell cryptocurrency. While convenient, these wallets are the least secure option, as they are susceptible to hacking and theft.

It is important to follow basic security measures when storing cryptocurrency, such as using strong passwords, activating two-factor authentication, and making regular key backups.

How to store cryptocurrency?

Is cryptocurrency safe?

There are several factors to consider in terms of security:

  • Fraud and scams: cryptocurrency scams and fraud are, unfortunately, very common. It is important to be cautious about emails or messenger messages asking to invest in a new cryptocurrency and promising high returns. The same applies to numerous "gurus" offering investments in their projects, selling unique trading strategies, etc.;
  • Phishing attacks are a common risk when using cryptocurrency. Hackers can create fake websites or emails that look like cryptocurrency exchanges or wallets and trick users into providing their private keys or other sensitive information;
  • cryptocurrencies may be at risk due to regulatory and legal issues. Different countries have different approaches to regulating cryptocurrencies, and some jurisdictions may impose restrictions or bans on the use or exchange of cryptocurrencies.
  • When buying or selling cryptocurrency on an exchange, it is important to choose a reputable platform with robust security measures. 

However, even reputable exchanges can be vulnerable to hacking and theft, so it is important to follow security rules, such as using two-factor authentication and keeping personal keys and recovery phrases in a safe and secure place.

In general, cryptocurrency can be safe, but it requires care and appropriate security measures. It is important to be aware, follow security measures and use reliable services and platforms to process and store cryptocurrency.

Is cryptocurrency safe?

Cryptocurrency risks

Of course, there are certain risks in using cryptocurrency, for example:

  1. Cryptocurrencies are characterized by significant price volatility, which means that their prices can fluctuate dramatically in short periods of time. This can lead to potential financial losses, especially if an investor takes risks without proper understanding and planning.
  2. Despite predictions from experts about a "bankless" future, cryptocurrencies still face problems of scaling and acceptance. Regulation, security and privacy also remain important barriers to widespread adoption.
  3. Cryptocurrencies are often used as a speculative investment vehicle. Investors purchase cryptocurrencies in hopes of seeing their price rise so they can sell them at a profit later. Some cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, have shown incredible price increases since their inception. However, their prices are also subject to significant fluctuations, making them a very risky investment choice.

It is important to remember that cryptocurrency risks can be managed if proper precautions and informed decisions are taken. This includes doing research, choosing reliable platforms, using safe wallets, and following your own security measures.

Cryptocurrency risks

Prospects for the development of the cryptocurrency market

The cryptocurrency market is a dynamic and fast-growing field with significant growth potential as well as risks and challenges.

As the market matures and becomes widespread, it is likely to continue to attract the attention of investors, regulators, and the general public.

The cryptocurrency market has great potential for further development and growth. Here are a few perspectives that could affect the future development of the cryptocurrency market:

  1. Increased institutional involvement: with the emergence of large financial institutions, hedge funds and other corporate players in the cryptocurrency market, more institutional involvement is expected. This could lead to greater legitimacy and stability of the market, as well as an influx of large investments.
  2. Regulatory development: Many countries are beginning to develop and implement regulatory measures for the cryptocurrency market. The introduction of clear rules and legislation can improve security, investor protection, and overall market stability.
  3. Integration with the traditional financial system: With the growing interest in cryptocurrencies from traditional financial institutions, more integration between cryptocurrencies and traditional financial services is expected. This may include the launch of cryptocurrency funds, payment systems and other innovations.
  4. For example, PayPal and Visa have already begun integrating cryptocurrency into their systems. 
  5. Blockchain technology development: Blockchain technology, the underlying technology of cryptocurrencies, has a wide range of applications in various industries. Blockchain development is expected to continue, leading to new solutions and applications that may affect the cryptocurrency market.
  6. Expanding use in the global economy: Cryptocurrencies have the potential to become an increasingly common means of payment and storage of value. Their use could expand into a variety of industries, including international payments, e-commerce and financial services.
  7. Innovations in decentralized applications: The development of decentralized applications (dApps) based on blockchain could lead to new opportunities and innovations. This could include the creation of new ecosystems where cryptocurrencies play a central role.

Opinion from Cryptology experts on cryptocurrencies

Overall, cryptocurrency is an innovative and promising technology that could change many industries and influence the future of the financial system. It has many advantages, such as decentralization, fast and inexpensive transactions, and new possibilities for creating decentralized applications and smart contracts.

However, it should be taken into account that the cryptocurrency market also involves risks. High volatility, lack of regulation in some jurisdictions, and the possibility of illegal use are all factors to consider when dealing with cryptocurrencies.

It is important to understand that using and investing in cryptocurrencies requires awareness, caution, and appropriate security measures. Users must be willing to educate themselves and seek out reliable platforms to buy, store and exchange cryptocurrency, as well as comply with KYC regulations and protect their digital assets.

Despite these risks, the cryptocurrency market continues to attract the attention of investors, entrepreneurs and technology innovators. It represents a new phase in the development of the financial system and could be the basis for future innovation and change in the economy.

However, if the cryptocurrency market is to continue to grow and succeed, it needs to continue to work on scaling, security, regulation, and acceptance issues. Only then will cryptocurrencies be able to reach their full potential and become widely accepted instruments in the global economy.

So, the cryptocurrency market offers exciting opportunities, but requires awareness and vigilance. It is important to follow developments, be informed and make decisions based on fundamental understanding and your own risk profile.

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Frequently asked questions about cryptocurrency

What is cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual form of money that uses cryptography to secure transactions and manage the creation of new units. Cryptocurrencies have no physical representation and exist solely in electronic form.

How can you make money with cryptocurrency?

There are several ways to make money from cryptocurrency:
- Investing: Buying cryptocurrency and holding it in a safe wallet with the hope that its value will rise.
- Trading: Actively buying and selling cryptocurrency on exchanges to profit from price changes.
- Mining: Mining cryptocurrency using the processing power of a computer or specialized devices.
- Participating in ICO/STO: Investing in initial coin offerings (ICOs) or security (STOs).
- Receiving rewards for participating in blockchain networks: For example, for validating transactions or providing network resources.

How does cryptocurrency work?

Cryptocurrencies work based on blockchain technology, which is a distributed database containing records of all transactions. Each transaction is digitally signed and its information is added to the blockchain. Transactions are verified by a network of participants (miners), and only then are they considered complete.

Which cryptocurrency is considered the most promising?

The definition of the most promising cryptocurrency depends on many factors, and it can change over time. Some of the most well-known and discussed cryptocurrencies include Bitcoin (BTC) as the first and largest, Ethereum (ETH) as a platform for smart contracts, and many other alternative coins. The prospectivity of a cryptocurrency can depend on its technology, development team, application, and a number of other factors.

It is important to do your own research and risk assessment before investing in a cryptocurrency, and keep in mind that investing in cryptocurrencies always involves a high degree of risk and volatility.
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